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:: Bibliography ::
 | Post date: 2022/06/21 | 

Reference Style

A bibliography makes a list of all cited references at the end of a manuscript. We use a unique reference style based on the Vancouver style

EndNote Software

We suggest our authors write and manage their references using EndNote Software (http://www.endnote.com). Preparing the references list using EndNote Software will be considered an advantage to facilitate and accelerate the revision process of the manuscripts. If you wish to take advantage of this, please use Endnote Software to prepare the references list and upload the Endnote library (the file with .enl extension) during submission.

Reference Validity:

Based on our policy, at least 80% of the references must be retrieved from valid sources and have DOI. Crossref Simple Text Query can detect the number of valid references.

In-Text style

In the Briefland style, the numbers are the only indication required in the text, allocated in ascending sequence, and presented either in the brackets or superscript format. For example: "..... with depression from increased telephone support (1), better cooperation be..... follow up (2-5,7,10)."


Types of Reference

  1. Journal Articles
  2. Books
  3. WWW documents
Type 1) Journal Article


  • Author's surname, followed by the initials or first name; for articles by up to and including six authors, list all authors separated by commas
  • The title of the article, followed by a full stop
  • The title of the journal is abbreviated. Please do not use punctuation.
  • Date of publication: the year followed by the month (abbreviated to three letters) and the day followed by a semi-colon.
  • The volume and issue number, the latter in brackets, followed by a colon
  • The page numbers, followed by a full stop

Tips 1: How to find a journal abbreviation?

Search the journal title in one of the below databases. If you cannot find a particular journal-title in the NLM database, check one following.

If you still cannot find an abbreviation, build one using the ISSN International Centre's LTWA (LTWA stands for List of Title Word Abbreviations, go to Access to the LTWA). For example, if you had an article from the fictitious Annals of Egyptian Nutrition, you would find the abbreviation for Annals (Ann), then the abbreviation for Egyptian (Egypt), and, finally, the abbreviation for Nutrition (Nutr) to come up with Ann Egypt Nutr.

  • List the first six authors followed by et al.

    • Meydani SN, Leka LS, Fine BC, Dallal GE, Keusch GT, Singh MF, et al.Vitamin E and Respiratory Tract Iinfections in Elderly Nursing Home Residents: a Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA. 2004 Aug 18;292(7):828-36.

    • Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7.

  • Optional addition of a database's unique identifier for the citation

    • Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7. PubMed PMID: 12140307.
    • Forooghian F, Yeh S, Faia LJ, Nussenblatt RB. Uveitic foveal atrophy: clinical features and associations. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 Feb;127(2):179-86. PubMed ID: 19204236;PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2653214.
  • Organization as the author

    • Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):679-86.
    • Margulies EH, Blanchette M; NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, Haussler D, Green ED. Identification and characterization of multi-species conserved sequences. Genome Res. 2003 Dec;13(12):2507-18.
  • Article not in English 

    • Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I.[Disease anxiety among medical students and law students]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002 Mar 20;122(8):785-7. Norwegian.
  • Volume or issue with the supplement

    • Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine and in comparison with sumatriptan. Headache. 2002;42 Suppl 2:S93-9.
    • Glauser TA. Integrating clinical trial data into clinical practice. Neurology. 2002;58(12 Suppl 7):S6-12.
  • Volume or issue with the part

    • Abend SM, Kulish N. The psychoanalytic method from an epistemological viewpoint. Int J Psychoanal. 2002;83(Pt 2):491-5.
    • Ahrar K, Madoff DC, Gupta S, Wallace MJ, Price RE, Wright KC. Development of a large animal model for lung tumors. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2002;13(9 Pt 1):923-8.
Type 2) Books


  1. Each author's surname is followed by the initials (in the same order as they appear on the title page); a comma should separate each author's name.
  2. The title of the book
  3. The edition number of the book, if there has been more than one edition. Abbreviate the edition to the Ed.
  4. Place of publication or town of origin, followed by a colon
  5. The publisher's name, followed by a semi-colon
  6. The year of publication
  • Editor(s), compiler(s) as author

    • Gilstrap LC 3rd, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.
  • Author(s) and editor(s)

    • Breedlove GK, Schorfheide AM. Adolescent pregnancy. 2nd ed. Wieczorek RR, editor. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Education Services; 2001.

  • Organization(s) as author

    • National Lawyers Guild AIDs Network (US); National Gay Rights Advocates (US).AIDS practice manual: a legal and educational guide. 2nd ed. San Francisco: The Network; 1988.
  • A chapter in a book

    • Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome Alterations in Human Solid Tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The Genetic Basis of Human Cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.
  • The Conference proceedings

    • Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer; 2002.
  • The Conference paper

    • Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza's computational effort statistic for genetic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan C, Tettamanzi AG, editors. Genetic programming. EuroGP 2002: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming;2002 Apr 3-5; Kinsdale, Ireland. Berlin: Springer; 2002. p. 182-91.
  • Dissertation

    • Borkowski MM. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of Hispanic Americans [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central Michigan University; 2002.
  • Patent

    • Pagedas AC, inventor; Ancel Surgical R&D Inc., assignee. Flexible endoscopic grasping and cutting device and positioning tool assembly. United States patent US 20020103498. 2002 Aug 1.
Type 3) WWW document
  • Structure:

    • Author/editor's surname author/editor's first name or initials. Editor [if appropriate]. Title of page. Title of site. Last update or copyright date. URL (Access date).
    • Royal College of General Practitioners. The Primary Health Care Team. RCGP website 2003 [cited 2004 Sep 22]; Available from: URL: http://www.rcgp.org.uk/information/publications/information/PDFInfo/21_OCT_03.pdf
  • Article in an online format

    • Author's surname, initials. (Year) Document title. Journal title, Volume (part).

    • Drasin, Todd, Dutson, Erik and Gracia, Carlos. Use of a Robotic System as Surgical First Assistant in Advanced Laparoscopic Surgery. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 199(3).

  • Homepage/Web site

    • Example: Cancer-Pain.org [Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16; cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.cancer-pain.org/.
  • Blogs

    • Holt M. The Health Care Blog [Internet]. San Francisco: Matthew Holt. 2003 Oct - [cited 2009 Feb 13]. Available from: http://www.thehealthcareblog.com/the_health_care_blog/.
    • KidneyNotes.com [Internet]. New York: KidneyNotes. c2006 - [cited 2009 Feb 13]. Available from: http://www.kidneynotes.com/.
  • Government publications

    • NHS Executive. Clinical Governance: Quality in the New NHS. London: Department of Health; 1999.
  • Map

    • Pratt B, Flick P, Vynne C, cartographers. Biodiversity hotspots [map]. Washington: Conservation International; 2000.
  • Dictionary and similar references

    • Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary. 29th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 2000. Filamin; p. 675.
  • In press or forthcoming materials

    • Tian D, Araki H, Stahl E, Bergelson J, Kreitman M. Signature of balancing selection in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Forthcoming 2002.

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